- Minor tweaks to URLs and tests to pass CRAN checks.

This NEWS file now follows the Keep a Changelog format.

Removed lifecycle badge from

`README`

file.The training data has to be explicitly passed in more cases when using

`vi_permute()`

,`vi_shap()`

, and`vi_firm()`

.Raised R version dependency to >= 4.1.0 (the introduction of the native piper operator

`|>`

).The

`vi_permute`

function now relies on the yardstick package for compouting performance measures (e.g., RMSE and log loss); consequently, user-supplied metric functions now nned to conform to yardstick metric argument names.The

`var_fun`

argument in`vi_firm()`

has been deprecated; use the new`var_continuous`

and`var_categorical`

instead.The explicit

`ice`

argument in`vi_firm()`

has been removed; it was not really needed since it can be passed via the`...`

argument.Removed magrittr from imports; it’s easy enough to just laod the package if you need it or use R’s newer internal pipe operator.

Tweaked examples.

Tests based on fastshap now check to make sure it’s available.

Suppress loading of mixOmics in tests.

Switched lifecycle badge from “maturing”, which has been superseded, to “experimental.”

Fixed H2O URL in

`vi_model.R`

.Removed the unnecessary

`LazyData: true`

line from the`DESCRIPTION`

file.Switched to using markdown syntax in

`roxygen2`

comments.

`vi_model()`

now supports lightgbm models. Thanks to @nipnipj for the suggestion (#146).The permutation importance method (i.e., function

`vi_permute()`

) now integrates with and uses yardstick performance metrics.`list_metrics()`

gained an additional`smaller_is_better`

column indicating whether or not the corresponding metric should be minimized (`smaller_is_better = TRUE`

) or maximized (`smaller_is_better = FALSE`

); thanks to @topedo. Additionally, all the column names are now in lower case.Added support for partial least squares via the mixOmics package (PR #129); thanks to @topedo.

Added support for the workflows and parsnip packages from the tidymodels ecosystem (PR #128); thanks to @topedo.

New pkgdown site and vignette based on our original R Journal article.

- Function
`add_sparklines()`

seems out of scope and has been removed. - Function
`vint()`

also seems out of scope and is too slow to implement for most practical problems; for now, the function will likely live on in the moreparty package.

- Add
`tools/`

to .Rbuildignore.

Change http://spark.rstudio.com/mlib/ to https://spark.rstudio.com/mlib/ in NEWS.md.

Remove unnecessary codecov.yml file.

- Removed deprecated arguments from
`vip()`

; in particular,`bar`

,`width`

,`alpha`

,`color`

,`fill`

,`size`

, and`shape`

. Users should instead rely on the`mapping`

and`aesthetics`

arguments; see`?vip::vip`

for details.

- Fixed a couple bugs that occurred when using
`vi_model()`

with the glmnet package. In particular, we added a new`lamnda`

parameter for specifying the value of the penalty term to use when extracting the estimated coefficients. This is equivalent to the`s`

argument in`glmnet::coef()`

; the name`lambda`

was chosen to not conflict with other arguments in`vi()`

. Additionally,`vi_model()`

did not return the absolute value of the estimated coefficients for glmnet models like advertised, but is now fixed in this version (#103).

Switched from Travis-CI to GitHub Actions for continuous integration.

Added a CITATION file and PDF-based vignette based off of the published article in The R Journal (#109).

Switch from

`tibble::as.tibble()`

—which was deprecated in tibble 2.0.0—to`tibble::as_tibble()`

in a few function calls (#101).

- The
`Importance`

column from`vi_model()`

no longer contains “inner” names; in accordance with breaking changes in tibble 3.0.0.

Added support for SHAP-based feature importance which makes use of the recent fastshap package on CRAN. To use, simply call

`vi()`

or`vip()`

and specify`method = "shap"`

, or you can just call`vi_shap()`

directly (#87).Added support for the parsnip, mlr, and mlr3 packages (#94).

Added support for

`"mvr"`

objects from the pls package (currently just calls`caret::varImp()`

) (#35).The

`"lm"`

method for`vi_model()`

gained a new`type`

argument that allows users to use either (1) the raw coefficients if the features were properly standardized (`type = "raw"`

), or (2) the absolute value of the corresponding*t*- or*z*-statistic (`type = "stat"`

, the default) (#77).New function

`gen_friedman()`

for simulating data from the Friedman 1 benchmark problem; see`?vip::gen_friedman`

for details.

The

`vi_pdp()`

and`vi_ice()`

functions have been deprecated and merged into a single new function called`vi_firm()`

. Consequently, setting`method = "pdp"`

and`method = "ice"`

has also been deprecated; use`method = "firm"`

instead.The

`metric`

and`pred_wrapper`

arguments to`vi_permute()`

are no longer optional.The

`vip()`

function gained a new argument,`geom`

, for specifying which type of plot to construct. Current options are`geom = "col"`

(the default),`geom = "point"`

,`geom = "boxplot"`

, or`geom = "violin"`

(the latter two only work for permutation-based importance with`nsim > 1`

) (#79). Consequently, the`bar`

argument has been removed.The

`vip()`

function gained two new arguments for specifying aesthetics:`mapping`

and`aesthetics`

(for fixed aesthetics like`color = "red"`

). Consequently, the arguments`color`

,`fill`

, etc. have been removed (#80).

An example illustrating the above two changes is given below:

```
# Load required packages
library(ggplot2) # for `aes_string()` function
# Load the sample data
data(mtcars)
# Fit a linear regression model
<- lm(mpg ~ ., data = mtcars)
model
# Construct variable importance plots
<- vip(model)
p1 <- vip(model, mapping = aes_string(color = "Sign"))
p2 <- vip(model, type = "dotplot")
p3 <- vip(model, type = "dotplot", mapping = aes_string(color = "Variable"),
p4 aesthetics = list(size = 3))
grid.arrange(p1, p2, p3, p4, nrow = 2)
```

- The
`vip()`

function gained a new argument,`include_type`

, which defaults to`FALSE`

. If`TRUE`

, the type of variable importance that was computed is included in the appropriate axis label. Set`include_type = TRUE`

to revert to the old behavior.

Removed dependency on ModelMetrics and the built-in family of performance metrics (

`metric_*()`

) are now documented and exported. See, for example,`?vip::metric_rmse`

(#93).Minor documentation improvements.

The internal (i.e., not exported)

`get_feature_names()`

function does a better job with`"nnet"`

objects containing factors. It also does a better job at extracting feature names from model objects containing a`"formula"`

component.`vi_model()`

now works correctly for`"glm"`

objects with non-Gaussian families (e.g., logistic regression) (#74).Added appropriate

**sparklyr**version dependency (#59).

Removed warnings from experimental functions.

`vi_permute()`

gained a type argument (i.e.,`type = "difference"`

or`type = "ratio"`

); this argument can be passed via`vi()`

or`vip()`

as well.`add_sparklines()`

creates an HTML widget to display variable importance scores with a sparkline representation of each features effect (i.e., its partial dependence function) (#64).Added support for the Olden and Garson algorithms with neural networks fit using the

**neuralnet**,**nnet**, and**RSNNS**packages (#28).Added support for GLMNET models fit using the

**glmnet**package (with and without cross-validation).

The

`pred_fun`

argument in`vi_permute()`

has been changed to`pred_wrapper`

.The

`FUN`

argument to`vi()`

,`vi_pdp()`

, and`vi_ice()`

has been changed to`var_fun`

.Only the predicted class probabilities for the reference class are required (as a numeric vector) for binary classification when

`metric = "auc"`

or`metric = "logloss"`

.

`vi_permute()`

gained a new logical`keep`

argument. If`TRUE`

(the default), the raw permutation scores from all`nsim`

repetitions (provided`nsim > 1`

) will be stored in an attribute called`"raw_scores"`

.`vip()`

gained new logical arguments`all_permutations`

and`jitter`

which help to visualize the raw permutation scores for all`nsim`

repetitions (provided`nsim > 1`

).You can now pass a

`type`

argument to`vi_permute()`

specifying how to compare the baseline and permuted performance metrics. Current choices are`"difference"`

(the default) and`"ratio"`

.Improved documentation (especially for

`vi_permute()`

and`vi_model()`

).Results from

`vi_model()`

,`vi_pdp()`

,`vi_ice()`

, and`vi_permute()`

now have class`"vi"`

, making them easier to plot with`vip()`

.

Added

`nsim`

argument to`vi_permute()`

for reducing the sampling variability induced by permuting each predictor (#36).Added

`sample_size`

and`sample_frac`

arguments to`vi_permute()`

for reducing the size of the training sample for every Monte Carlo repetition (#41).Greatly improved the documentation for

`vi_model()`

and the various objects it supports.New argument

`rank`

, which defaults to`FALSE`

, available in`vi()`

(#55).Added support for Spark (G)LMs.

`vi()`

is now a generic which makes adding new methods easier (e.g., to support DataRobot models).Bug fixes.

Fixed bug in

`get_feature_names.ranger()`

s.t. it never returns`NULL`

; it either returns the feature names or throws an error if they cannot be recovered from the model object (#43).Added

`pkgdown`

site: https://github.com/koalaverse/vip.Changed

`truncate_feature_names`

argument of`vi()`

to`abbreviate_feature_names`

which abbreviates all feature names, rather than just truncating them.Added CRAN-related badges (#32).

New generic

`vi_permute()`

for constructing permutation-based variable importance scores (#19).Fixed bug and unnecessary error check in

`vint()`

(#38).New vignette on using

`vip`

with unsupported models (using the Keras API to TensorFlow as an example).Added basic sparklyr support.

Added support for XGBoost models (i.e., objects of class

`"xgb.booster"`

).Added support for ranger models (i.e., objects of class

`"ranger"`

).Added support for random forest models from the

`party`

package (i.e., objects of class`"RandomForest"`

).`vip()`

gained a new argument,`num_features`

, for specifying how many variable importance scores to plot. The default is set to`10`

.`.`

was changed to`_`

in all argument names.`vi()`

gained three new arguments:`truncate_feature_names`

(for truncating feature names in the returned tibble),`sort`

(a logical argument specifying whether or not the resulting variable importance scores should be sorted), and`decreasing`

(a logical argument specifying whether or not the variable importance scores should be sorted in decreasing order).`vi_model.lm()`

, and hence`vi()`

, contains an additional column called`Sign`

that contains the sign of the original coefficients (#27).`vi()`

gained a new argument,`scale`

, for scaling the variable importance scores so that the largest is 100. Default is`FALSE`

(#24).`vip()`

gained two new arguments,`size`

and`shape`

, for controlling the size and shape of the points whenever`bar = FALSE`

(#9).Added support for

`"H2OBinomialModel"`

,`"H2OMultinomialModel"`

, and,`"H2ORegressionModel"`

objects (#8).

- Initial release.