All CAPE parameters are calculated by integrating parcel’s positive buoyancy between level of free convection (LFC) and equilibrium level (EL). All CIN parameters are calculated by integrating parcel negative buoyancy between parcel initialization height and level of free convection (LFC). Most-unstable (MU) parcel is defined based on the highest theta-e between surface and 3 km above ground level (AGL). A default mixed-layer (ML) parcel is calculated by averaging theta and mixing ratio over 0–500 m AGL layer and initializing from surface. If other user-defined parcel lifting options are choosen, all parameters that use mixed-layer (ML) parcel (e.g. STP_new) will now use a user-defined manual-lift (ML) parcel.

Below is the full list of parameters computed and exported with the `sounding_compute()`

function:

**Parcel parameters**

[1] MU_CAPE – convective available potential energy, derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are J/kg.

[2] MU_CAPE_M10 – convective available potential energy in the temperature below -10°C, derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are J/kg.

[3] MU_CAPE_M10_PT – convective available potential energy in the parcel temperature below - 10°C, derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are J/kg.

[4] MU_02km_CAPE – convective available potential energy between surface and 2 km AGL, derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are J/kg.

[5] MU_03km_CAPE – convective available potential energy between surface and 3 km AGL, derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are J/kg.

[6] MU_HGL_CAPE – convective available potential energy in a hail growth layer (between 0°C and −20°C), derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are J/kg.

[7] MU_CIN – convective inhibition, derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are J/kg.

[8] MU_LCL_HGT – height of the lifted condensation level, derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are m AGL.

[9] MU_LFC_HGT – height of the level of free convection, derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are m AGL.

[10] MU_EL_HGT – height of the equilibrium level, derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are m AGL.

[11] MU_LI – lifted index (at 500 hPa), derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are K.

[12] MU_LI_M10 – lifted index (at -10°C), derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are K.

[13] MU_WMAX – estimated updraft speed (a square root of two times CAPE), derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are m/s.

[14] MU_EL_TEMP – temperature of the equilibrium level, derived from the most-unstable parcel. Units are °C.

[15] MU_LCL_TEMP – temperature of the lifted condensation level, derived from the most- unstable parcel. Units are °C.

[16] MU_LFC_TEMP – temperature of the level of free convection, derived from the most- unstable parcel. Units are °C.

[17] MU_MIXR – mixing ratio at the height of the most-unstable parcel. Units are g/kg.

[18] MU_CAPE_500 – convective available potential energy, derived from the most-unstable parcel excluding lowest 500 m AGL. Units are J/kg.

[19] MU_CAPE_500_M10 – convective available potential energy in the temperature below - 10°C, derived from the most-unstable parcel excluding lowest 500 m AGL. Units are J/kg.

[20] MU_CAPE_500_M10_PT – convective available potential energy in the parcel temperature below -10°C, derived from the most-unstable parcel excluding lowest 500 m AGL. Units are J/kg.

[21] MU_CIN_500 – convective inhibition, derived from the most-unstable parcel excluding lowest 500 m AGL. Units are J/kg.

[22] MU_LI_500 – lifted index (500 hPa), derived from the most-unstable parcel excluding lowest 500 m AGL. Units are K.

[23] MU_LI_500_M10 – lifted index (at -10°C), derived from the most-unstable parcel excluding lowest 500 m AGL. Units are K.

[24] SB_CAPE – convective available potential energy, derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are J/kg.

[25] SB_CAPE_M10 – convective available potential energy in the temperature below -10°C, derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are J/kg.

[26] SB_CAPE_M10_PT – convective available potential energy in the parcel temperature below - 10°C, derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are J/kg.

[27] SB_02km_CAPE – convective available potential energy between surface and 2 km AGL, derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are J/kg.

[28] SB_03km_CAPE – convective available potential energy between surface and 3 km AGL, derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are J/kg.

[29] SB_HGL_CAPE – convective available potential energy in a hail growth layer (between 0°C and −20°C), derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are J/kg.

[30] SB_CIN – convective inhibition, derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are J/kg.

[31] SB_LCL_HGT – height of the lifted condensation level, derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are m AGL.

[32] SB_LFC_HGT – height of the level of free convection, derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are m AGL.

[33] SB_EL_HGT – height of the equilibrium level, derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are m AGL.

[34] SB_LI – lifted index (500 hPa), derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are K.

[35] SB_LI_M10 – lifted index (at -10°C), derived from the surface-unstable parcel. Units are K.

[36] SB_WMAX – estimated updraft speed (a square root of two times CAPE), derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are m/s.

[37] SB_EL_TEMP – temperature of the equilibrium level, derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are °C.

[38] SB_LCL_TEMP – temperature of the lifted condensation level, derived from the surface- based parcel. Units are °C.

[39] SB_LFC_TEMP – temperature of the level of free convection, derived from the surface-based parcel. Units are °C.

[40] SB_MIXR – mixing ratio at the height of the surface-based parcel. Units are g/kg.

[41] ML_CAPE – convective available potential energy, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are J/kg.

[42] ML_CAPE_M10 – convective available potential energy in the temperature below -10°C, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are J/kg.

[43] ML_CAPE_M10_PT – convective available potential energy in the parcel temperature below -10°C, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are J/kg.

[44] ML_02km_CAPE – convective available potential energy between surface and 2 km AGL, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are J/kg.

[45] ML_03km_CAPE – convective available potential energy between surface and 3 km AGL, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are J/kg.

[46] ML_HGL_CAPE – convective available potential energy in a hail growth layer (between 0°C and −20°C), derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are J/kg.

[47] ML_CIN – convective inhibition, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are J/kg.

[48] ML_LCL_HGT – height of the lifted condensation level, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are m AGL.

[49] ML_LFC_HGT – height of the level of free convection, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are m AGL.

[50] ML_EL_HGT – height of the equilibrium level, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are m AGL.

[51] ML_LI – lifted index, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are K.

[52] ML_LI_M10 – lifted index (at -10°C), derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are K.

[53] ML_WMAX – estimated updraft speed (a square root of two times CAPE), derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are m/s.

[54] ML_EL_TEMP – temperature of the equilibrium level, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are °C.

[55] ML_LCL_TEMP – temperature of the lifted condensation level, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are °C.

[56] ML_LFC_TEMP – temperature of the level of free convection, derived from the mixed-layer parcel. Units are °C.

[57] ML_MIXR – mixing ratio at the height of the surface-based parcel. Units are g/kg.

**Temperature and moisture parameters:**

[58] LR_0500m – temperature lapse rate between surface and 500 m AGL. Units are K/km.

[59] LR_01km – temperature lapse rate between surface and 1 km AGL. Units are K/km.

[60] LR_02km – temperature lapse rate between surface and 2 km AGL. Units are K/km.

[61] LR_03km – temperature lapse rate between surface and 3 km AGL. Units are K/km.

[62] LR_04km – temperature lapse rate between surface and 4 km AGL. Units are K/km.

[63] LR_06km – temperature lapse rate between surface and 6 km AGL. Units are K/km.

[64] LR_16km – temperature lapse rate between 1 and 6 km AGL. Units are K/km.

[65] LR_26km – temperature lapse rate between 2 and 6 km AGL. Units are K/km.

[66] LR_24km – temperature lapse rate between 2 and 4 km AGL. Units are K/km.

[67] LR_36km – temperature lapse rate between 3 and 6 km AGL. Units are K/km.

[68] LR_26km_MAX – maximum temperature lapse rate between 2 and 6 km AGL (2 km steps). Units are K/km.

[69] LR_500700hPa – temperature lapse rate between 500 and 700 hPa (if below ground level, the lowest available level is considered). Units are K/km.

[70] LR_500800hPa – temperature lapse rate between 500 and 800 hPa (if below ground level, the lowest available level is considered). Units are K/km.

[71] LR_600800hPa – temperature lapse rate between 600 and 800 hPa (if below ground level, the lowest available level is considered). Units are K/km.

[72] FRZG_HGT – height of freezing level (0°C), as a first available level counting from the surface. Units are m AGL.

[73] FRZG_wetbulb_HGT – height of wet-bulb freezing level (0°C) as a first available level counting from the surface. Units are m AGL.

[74] HGT_max_thetae_03km – height of the highest theta-e between surface and 3 km AGL (defined as most-unstable parcel). Units are m AGL.

[75] HGT_min_thetae_04km – height of the lowest theta-e between surface and 4 km AGL. Units are m AGL.

[76] Delta_thetae – difference in theta-e between the mean in 3–5 km AGL layer and surface. Units are K.

[77] Delta_thetae_04km – difference in theta-e between lowest value in 0–4 km AGL and surface. Units are K.

[78] Thetae_01km – mean theta-e between surface and 1 km AGL. Units are K.

[79] Thetae_02km – mean theta-e between surface and 2 km AGL. Units are K.

[80] DCAPE – downdraft convective available potential energy, initialized from 4 km AGL with a mean theta-e in 3–5 km AGL layer. Units are J/kg.

[81] Cold_Pool_Strength – difference between surface temperature and temperature of the downdraft (derived from DCAPE procedure) at the surface. Units are K.

[82] Wind_Index – based on original formula from McCann (1994), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(1994)009%3C0532:WNIFFM%3E2.0.CO;2 Units indicate estimated wind gust in knots.

[83] PRCP_WATER – precipitable water (entire column). Units are mm.

[84] Moisture_Flux_02km – mean wind speed multiplied by mean mixing ratio in the layer between surface and 2 km AGL (both). Units are g/s/m2.

[85] RH_01km – mean relative humidity between surface and 1 km AGL layer. Units are %.

[86] RH_02km – mean relative humidity between surface and 2 km AGL layer. Units are %.

[87] RH_14km – mean relative humidity between 1 and 4 km AGL layer. Units are %.

[88] RH_25km – mean relative humidity between 2 and 5 km AGL layer. Units are %.

[89] RH_36km – mean relative humidity between 3 and 6 km AGL layer. Units are %.

[90] RH_HGL – mean relative humidity in a hail growth layer (between 0°C and −20°C). Units are %.

**Kinematic parameters:**

If user-defined manual storm motion is choosen, all parameters that use RM and LM Bunkers storm-motion vectors will now use a user-defined manual storm motion vector.

[91] BS_0500m – bulk wind shear between surface and 500 m AGL. Units are m/s.

[92] BS_01km – bulk wind shear between surface and 1 km AGL. Units are m/s.

[93] BS_02km – bulk wind shear between surface and 2 km AGL. Units are m/s.

[94] BS_03km – bulk wind shear between surface and 3 km AGL. Units are m/s.

[95] BS_06km – bulk wind shear between surface and 6 km AGL. Units are m/s.

[96] BS_08km – bulk wind shear between surface and 8 km AGL. Units are m/s.

[97] BS_36km – bulk wind shear between 3 and 6 km AGL. Units are m/s.

[98] BS_26km – bulk wind shear between 2 and 6 km AGL. Units are m/s.

[99] BS_16km – bulk wind shear between 1 and 6 km AGL. Units are m/s.

[100] BS_18km – bulk wind shear between 1 and 8 km AGL. Units are m/s.

[101] BS_EFF_MU – effective shear between parcel initialization height and half of the distance to equilibrium level height, based on the most-unstable parcel. Units are m/s.

[102] BS_EFF_SB – effective shear between parcel initialization height and half of the distance to equilibrium level height, based on the surface-based parcel. Units are m/s.

[103] BS_EFF_ML – effective shear between parcel initialization height and half of the distance to equilibrium level height, based on the mixed-layer parcel. Units are m/s.

[104] BS_SFC_to_M10 – bulk wind shear between surface and −10°C. Units are m/s.

[105] BS_1km_to_M10 – bulk wind shear between 1 km AGL and −10°C. Units are m/s.

[106] BS_2km_to_M10 – bulk wind shear between 2 km AGL and −10°C. Units are m/s.

[107] BS_MU_LFC_to_M10 – bulk wind shear between most-unstable level of free convection and −10°C. Units are m/s.

[108] BS_SB_LFC_to_M10 – bulk wind shear between surface-based level of free convection and −10°C. Units are m/s.

[109] BS_ML_LFC_to_M10 – bulk wind shear between mixed-layer level of free convection and −10°C. Units are m/s.

[110] BS_MW02_SM – bulk wind shear between 0–2 km mean wind and mean storm motion vector. Units are m/s.

[111] BS_MW02_RM – bulk wind shear between 0–2 km mean wind and right-moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[112] BS_MW02_LM – bulk wind shear between 0–2 km mean wind and left-moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[113] BS_HGL_SM – bulk wind shear between a hail growth layer (between 0°C and −20°C) and mean storm motion vector. Units are m/s.

[114] BS_HGL_RM – bulk wind shear between a hail growth layer (between 0°C and −20°C) and right-moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[115] BS_HGL_LM – bulk wind shear between a hail growth layer (between 0°C and −20°C) and left-moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[116] MW_0500m – mean wind speed between surface and 500 m AGL layer. Units are m/s.

[117] MW_01km – mean wind speed between surface and 1 km AGL layer. Units are m/s.

[118] MW_02km – mean wind speed between surface and 2 km AGL layer. Units are m/s.

[119] MW_03km – mean wind speed between surface and 3 km AGL layer. Units are m/s.

[120] MW_06km – mean wind speed between surface and 6 km AGL layer. Units are m/s.

[121] MW_13km – mean wind speed between 1 and 3 km AGL layer. Units are m/s.

[122] SRH_100m_RM – storm-relative helicity between surface and 100m AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are m2/s2.

[123] SRH_250m_RM – storm-relative helicity between surface and 250m AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are m2/s2.

[124] SRH_500m_RM – storm-relative helicity between surface and 500m AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are m2/s2.

[125] SRH_1km_RM – storm-relative helicity between surface and 1 km AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are m2/s2.

[126] SRH_3km_RM – storm-relative helicity between surface and 3 km AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are m2/s2.

[127] SRH_36km_RM – storm-relative helicity between 3 and 6 km AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are m2/s2.

[128] SRH_100m_LM – storm-relative helicity between surface and 100m AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are m2/s2.

[129] SRH_250m_LM – storm-relative helicity between surface and 250m AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are m2/s2.

[130] SRH_500m_LM – storm-relative helicity between surface and 500m AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are m2/s2.

[131] SRH_1km_LM – storm-relative helicity between surface and 1 km AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are m2/s2.

[132] SRH_3km_LM – storm-relative helicity between surface and 3 km AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are m2/s2.

[133] SRH_36km_LM – storm-relative helicity between 3 and 6 km AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are m2/s2.

[134] SV_500m_RM – streamwise vorticity between surface and 500 m AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are 1/s.

[135] SV_01km_RM – streamwise vorticity between surface and 1 km AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are 1/s.

[136] SV_03km_RM – streamwise vorticity between surface and 3 km AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are 1/s.

[137] SV_500m_LM – streamwise vorticity between surface and 500 m AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are 1/s.

[138] SV_01km_LM – streamwise vorticity between surface and 1 km AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are 1/s.

[139] SV_03km_LM – streamwise vorticity between surface and 3 km AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are 1/s.

[140] MW_SR_500m_RM – storm-relative mean wind between surface and 500 m AGL for right- moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[141] MW_SR_01km_RM – storm-relative mean wind between surface and 500 m AGL for right- moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[142] MW_SR_03km_RM – storm-relative mean wind between surface and 3 km AGL for right- moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[143] MW_SR_500m_LM – storm-relative mean wind between surface and 500 m AGL for left- moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[144] MW_SR_01km_LM – storm-relative mean wind between surface and 500 m AGL for left- moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[145] MW_SR_03km_LM – storm-relative mean wind between surface and 3 km AGL for left- moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[146] MW_SR_VM_500m_RM – storm-relative mean wind (using a mean of vector magnitude) between surface and 500 m AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[147] MW_SR_VM_01km_RM – storm-relative mean wind (using a mean of vector magnitude) between surface and 500 m AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[148] MW_SR_VM_03km_RM – storm-relative mean wind (using a mean of vector magnitude) between surface and 3 km AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[149] MW_SR_VM_500m_LM – storm-relative mean wind (using a mean of vector magnitude) between surface and 500 m AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[150] MW_SR_VM_01km_LM – storm-relative mean wind (using a mean of vector magnitude) between surface and 500 m AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[151] MW_SR_VM_03km_LM – storm-relative mean wind (using a mean of vector magnitude) between surface and 3 km AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are m/s.

[152] SV_FRA_500m_RM – streamwise vorticity between surface and 500 m AGL for right- moving supercell vector. Units are 1/s.

[153] SV_FRA_01km_RM – streamwise vorticity fraction between surface and 1 km AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are 1/s.

[154] SV_FRA_03km_RM – streamwise vorticity fraction between surface and 3 km AGL for right-moving supercell vector. Units are 1/s.

[155] SV_FRA_500m_LM – streamwise vorticity fraction between surface and 500 m AGL for left-moving supercell vector. Units are 1/s.

[156] SV_FRA_01km_LM – streamwise vorticity fraction between surface and 1 km AGL for left- moving supercell vector. Units are 1/s.

[157] SV_FRA_03km_LM – streamwise vorticity fraction between surface and 3 km AGL for left- moving supercell vector. Units are 1/s.

[158] Bunkers_RM_A – azimuth for right-moving supercell vector. See Bunkers et al. (2002), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2000)015%3C0061:PSMUAN%3E2.0.CO;2 for further details. Units are °.

[159] Bunkers_RM_M – wind speed for right-moving supercell vector. See Bunkers et al. (2002), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2000)015%3C0061:PSMUAN%3E2.0.CO;2 for further details. Units are m/s.

[160] Bunkers_LM_A – azimuth for left-moving supercell vector. See Bunkers et al. (2002), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2000)015%3C0061:PSMUAN%3E2.0.CO;2 for further details. Units are °.

[161] Bunkers_LM_M – wind speed for left-moving supercell vector. See Bunkers et al. (2002), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2000)015%3C0061:PSMUAN%3E2.0.CO;2 for further details. Units are m/s.

[162] Bunkers_MW_A – azimuth for mean storm motion vector. See Bunkers et al. (2002), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2000)015%3C0061:PSMUAN%3E2.0.CO;2 for further details. Units are °.

[163] Bunkers_MW_M – wind speed for mean storm motion vector. See Bunkers et al. (2002), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2000)015%3C0061:PSMUAN%3E2.0.CO;2 for further details. Units are m/s.

[164] Corfidi_downwind_A – azimuth for Corfidi downwind vector. See Corfidi (2003) doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018%3C0997:CPAMPF%3E2.0.CO;2 for further details. Units are °.

[165] Corfidi_downwind_M – wind speed for Corfidi downwind vector. See Corfidi (2003) doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018%3C0997:CPAMPF%3E2.0.CO;2 for further details. Units are m/s.

[166] Corfidi_upwind_A – azimuth for Corfidi upwind vector. See Corfidi (2003) doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018%3C0997:CPAMPF%3E2.0.CO;2 for further details. Units are °.

[167] Corfidi_upwind_M – wind speed for Corfidi upwind vector. See Corfidi (2003) doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0434(2003)018%3C0997:CPAMPF%3E2.0.CO;2 for further details. Units are m/s.

**Composite parameters:**

[168] K_Index – based on original formula from George (1960): “Weather Forecasting for Aeronautics” Academic Press, London, 1960, p. 673. Units are K.

[169] Showalter_Index – based on original formula from Showalter (1953), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477-34.6.250. Units are K.

[170] TotalTotals_Index – based on original formula from Miller (1972): “Notes on analysis and severe-storm forecasting procedures of the Air Force Global Weather Central”, AWS Tech. Rpt. 200(rev), Air Weather Service, Scott AFB, IL. Units are K.

[171] SWEAT_Index – based on original formula from Bidner (1970): “The Air Force Global Weather Central severe weather threat (SWEAT) index—A preliminary report”. Air Weather Service Aerospace Sciences Review, AWS RP 105-2, No. 70-3, 2-5. Parameter is dimensionless.

[172] STP_fix – (significant tornado parameter fixed-layer) based on the fixed layer formula using surface-based CAPE and CIN. Parameter is dimensionless.

[173] STP_new – (significant tornado parameter) based on the formula from Coffer et al. (2019), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-19-0115.1. Parameter is dimensionless.

[174] STP_fix_LM – (significant tornado parameter fixed-layer) based on the fixed layer formula using surface-based CAPE and CIN. This version uses left-moving supercell vector for SRH calculation and is dedicated for Southern Hemisphere. Parameter is dimensionless.

[175] STP_new_LM – (significant tornado parameter) based on the formula from Coffer et al. (2019), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-19-0115.1. This version uses left-moving supercell vector for SRH calculation and is dedicated for Southern Hemisphere. Parameter is dimensionless.

[176] SCP_fix – (supercell composite parameter fixed-layer) based on Thompson et al. (2007), “An update to the supercell composite and significant tornado parameters”. Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc. P (Vol. 8), but with effective SRH replaced with surface to 3 km AGL SRH and effective bulk wind shear replaced with surface to 6 km AGL bulk wind shear. Based on most-unstable CAPE. Parameter is dimensionless.

[177] SCP_new – (supercell composite parameter) based on formula from Gropp and Davenport (2018), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-17-0150.1, but with effective SRH replaced with surface to 3 km AGL SRH. This version uses effective shear and CIN term. Based on most-unstable parcel. Parameter is dimensionless.

[178] SCP_fix_LM – (supercell composite parameter fixed-layer) based on Thompson et al. (2007), “An update to the supercell composite and significant tornado parameters”. Preprints, 22nd Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Hyannis, MA, Amer. Meteor. Soc. P (Vol. 8), but with effective SRH replaced with surface to 3 km AGL SRH and effective bulk wind shear replaced with surface to 6 km AGL bulk wind shear. Based on most-unstable CAPE. This version uses left-moving supercell vector for SRH calculation and is dedicated for Southern Hemisphere. Parameter is dimensionless.

[179] SCP_new_LM – (supercell composite parameter) based on formula from Gropp and Davenport (2018), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-17-0150.1, but with effective SRH replaced with surface to 3 km AGL SRH. This version uses effective shear and CIN term. Based on most- unstable parcel. This version uses left-moving supercell vector for SRH calculation and is dedicated for Southern Hemisphere. Parameter is dimensionless.

[180] SHIP – (significant hail parameter), based on formula currently used on the Storm Prediction Center mesoanalysis (https://www.spc.noaa.gov/exper/mesoanalysis/) as of 1 March 2021. Parameter is dimensionless.

[181] HSI – (hail size index), based on formula from Czernecki et al. (2019), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2019.05.010. Units are cm.

[182] DCP – based on formula currently used on the Storm Prediction Center mesoanalysis (https://www.spc.noaa.gov/exper/mesoanalysis/) as of 1 March 2021. Parameter is dimensionless.

[183] MU_WMAXSHEAR – most-unstable WMAX multiplied by surface to 6 km AGL bulk wind shear. See Taszarek et al. (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0346.1 for further details on WMAXSHEAR. Units are m2/s2.

[184] SB_WMAXSHEAR – surface-based WMAX multiplied by surface to 6 km AGL bulk wind shear. See Taszarek et al. (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0346.1 for further details on WMAXSHEAR. Units are m2/s2.

[185] ML_WMAXSHEAR – mixed-layer WMAX multiplied by surface to 6 km AGL bulk wind shear. See Taszarek et al. (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0346.1 for further details on WMAXSHEAR. Units are m2/s2.

[186] MU_EFF_WMAXSHEAR – most-unstable WMAX multiplied by most-unstable effective bulk wind shear. See Taszarek et al. (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0346.1 for further details on WMAXSHEAR. Units are m2/s2.

[187] SB_EFF_WMAXSHEAR – surface-based WMAX multiplied by surface-based effective bulk wind shear. See Taszarek et al. (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0346.1 for further details on WMAXSHEAR. Units are m2/s2.

[188] ML_EFF_WMAXSHEAR – mixed-layer WMAX multiplied by mixed-layer effective bulk wind shear. See Taszarek et al. (2020), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-20-0346.1 for further details on WMAXSHEAR. Units are m2/s2.

[189] EHI_500m – (energy helicity index), surface-based CAPE multiplied by 0–500 m storm- relative helicity for right-moving supercells and divided by 160000. Units are m2/s2.

[190] EHI_01km – (energy helicity index), surface-based CAPE multiplied by 0–1 km storm- relative helicity for right-moving supercells and divided by 160000. Units are m2/s2.

[191] EHI_03km – (energy helicity index), surface-based CAPE multiplied by 0–3 km storm- relative helicity for right-moving supercells and divided by 160000. Units are m2/s2.

[192] EHI_500m_LM – (energy helicity index), surface-based CAPE multiplied by 0–500 m storm-relative helicity for right-moving supercells and divided by 160000. This version uses left- moving supercell vector for SRH calculation and is dedicated for Southern Hemisphere. Units are m2/s2.

[193] EHI_01km_LM – (energy helicity index), surface-based CAPE multiplied by 0–1 km storm- relative helicity for right-moving supercells and divided by 160000. This version uses left-moving supercell vector for SRH calculation and is dedicated for Southern Hemisphere. Units are m2/s2.

[194] EHI_03km_LM – (energy helicity index), surface-based CAPE multiplied by 0–3 km storm- relative helicity for right-moving supercells and divided by 160000. This version uses left-moving supercell vector for SRH calculation and is dedicated for Southern Hemisphere. Units are m2/s2.

[195] SHERBS3 – based on the formula available in Sherburn and Parker (2014), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-13-00041.1. This version uses 0–3 km bulk wind shear term. Parameter is dimensionless.

[196] SHERBE – based on the formula available in Sherburn and Parker (2014), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-13-00041.1. This version uses effective bulk wind shear term. Parameter is dimensionless.

[197] SHERBS3_v2 – based on the formula available in Sherburn and Parker (2014), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-13-00041.1, but with 700-500 hPa lapse rate replaced with maximum 2 km lapse rate between 2 and 6 km AGL. This version uses 0–3 km bulk wind shear term. Parameter is dimensionless.

[198] SHERBE_v2 – based on the formula available in Sherburn and Parker (2014), doi: https://doi.org/10.1175/WAF-D-13-00041.1, but with 700-500 hPa lapse rate replaced with maximum 2 km lapse rate between 2 and 6 km AGL. This version uses effective bulk wind shear term. Parameter is dimensionless.

[199] DEI – (downburst environment index), a composite product of WMAXSHEAR and Cold Pool Strengths, based on the formula available in Romanic et al. (2022), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2022.100474. Parameter is dimensionless.

[200] DEI_eff – (downburst environment index), a composite product of WMAXSHEAR and Cold Pool Strengths but using an effective bulk wind shear layer, based on the formula available in Romanic et al. (2022), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wace.2022.100474. Parameter is dimensionless.

[201] TIP – (thunderstorm intensity parameter), an experimental composite product of CAPE, bulk wind shear, precipitable water and storm-relative helicity. Parameter is dimensionless

`sounding_compute()`

The interpolation algorithm used in the `sounding_compute()`

function impacts accuracy of parameters such as CAPE or CIN and the performance of the script. The valid options for the `accuracy`

parameter are 1, 2 or 3:

`accuracy = 1`

- High performance but low accuracy. Dedicated for large dataset when output data needs to be quickly available (e.g. operational numerical weather models). This option is around 20 times faster than high accuracy (3) setting. Interpolation is peformed for 60 levels (m AGL):

```
#> [1] 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100
#> [13] 1200 1300 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000 3200
#> [25] 3400 3600 3800 4000 4200 4400 4600 4800 5000 5200 5400 5600
#> [37] 5800 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10000 10500 11000
#> [49] 11500 12000 12500 13000 13500 14000 15000 16000 17000 18000 19000 20000
```

`accuracy = 2`

- Compromise between script performance and accuracy. Recommended for efficient processing of large numerical weather prediction datasets such as meteorological reanalyses for research studies. This option is around 10 times faster than high accuracy (3) setting. Interpolation is peformed for 318 levels (m AGL):

```
#> [1] 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
#> [13] 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230
#> [25] 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350
#> [37] 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470
#> [49] 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590
#> [61] 600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700 710
#> [73] 720 730 740 750 775 800 825 850 875 900 925 950
#> [85] 975 1000 1025 1050 1075 1100 1125 1150 1175 1200 1225 1250
#> [97] 1275 1300 1325 1350 1375 1400 1425 1450 1475 1500 1525 1550
#> [109] 1575 1600 1625 1650 1675 1700 1725 1750 1775 1800 1825 1850
#> [121] 1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000 2025 2050 2075 2100 2125 2150
#> [133] 2175 2200 2225 2250 2275 2300 2325 2350 2375 2400 2425 2450
#> [145] 2475 2500 2525 2550 2575 2600 2625 2650 2675 2700 2725 2750
#> [157] 2775 2800 2825 2850 2875 2900 2925 2950 2975 3000 3050 3100
#> [169] 3150 3200 3250 3300 3350 3400 3450 3500 3550 3600 3650 3700
#> [181] 3750 3800 3850 3900 3950 4000 4050 4100 4150 4200 4250 4300
#> [193] 4350 4400 4450 4500 4550 4600 4650 4700 4750 4800 4850 4900
#> [205] 4950 5000 5050 5100 5150 5200 5250 5300 5350 5400 5450 5500
#> [217] 5550 5600 5650 5700 5750 5800 5850 5900 5950 6000 6100 6200
#> [229] 6300 6400 6500 6600 6700 6800 6900 7000 7100 7200 7300 7400
#> [241] 7500 7600 7700 7800 7900 8000 8100 8200 8300 8400 8500 8600
#> [253] 8700 8800 8900 9000 9100 9200 9300 9400 9500 9600 9700 9800
#> [265] 9900 10000 10100 10200 10300 10400 10500 10600 10700 10800 10900 11000
#> [277] 11100 11200 11300 11400 11500 11600 11700 11800 11900 12000 12250 12500
#> [289] 12750 13000 13250 13500 13750 14000 14250 14500 14750 15000 15250 15500
#> [301] 15750 16000 16250 16500 16750 17000 17250 17500 17750 18000 18250 18500
#> [313] 18750 19000 19250 19500 19750 20000
```

`accuracy = 3`

: High accuracy but low performance setting. Recommended for analysing individual profiles. Interpolation is performed with 5 m vertical resolution step up to 20 km AGL (i.e.: `0, 5, 10, ... 20000`

m AGL)

```
library(thunder)
data("sounding_vienna")
= system.time(sounding_compute(sounding_vienna$pressure, sounding_vienna$altitude, sounding_vienna$temp, sounding_vienna$dpt, sounding_vienna$wd, sounding_vienna$ws, accuracy = 1))
t1 = system.time(sounding_compute(sounding_vienna$pressure, sounding_vienna$altitude, sounding_vienna$temp, sounding_vienna$dpt, sounding_vienna$wd, sounding_vienna$ws, accuracy = 2))
t2 = system.time(sounding_compute(sounding_vienna$pressure, sounding_vienna$altitude, sounding_vienna$temp, sounding_vienna$dpt, sounding_vienna$wd, sounding_vienna$ws, accuracy = 3))
t3 print(t1)
#> użytkownik system upłynęło
#> 0.005 0.000 0.006
print(t2)
#> użytkownik system upłynęło
#> 0.015 0.001 0.015
print(t3)
#> użytkownik system upłynęło
#> 0.175 0.002 0.177
```