In this vignette, we’ll tackle a multiclass classification problem using the stacks package. This vignette assumes that you’re familiar with tidymodels “proper,” as well as the basic grammar of the package, and have seen it implemented on numeric data; if this is not the case, check out the “Getting Started With stacks” vignette!
In this example, we’ll make use of the
stacks, giving experimental results on
hatching behavior of red-eyed tree frog embryos!
Red-eyed tree frog (RETF) embryos can hatch earlier than their normal 7ish days if they detect potential predator threat. Researchers wanted to determine how, and when, these tree frog embryos were able to detect stimulus from their environment. To do so, they subjected the embryos at varying developmental stages to “predator stimulus” by jiggling the embryos with a blunt probe. Beforehand, though, some of the embryos were treated with gentamicin, a compound that knocks out their lateral line (a sensory organ). Researcher Julie Jung and her crew found that these factors inform whether an embryo hatches prematurely or not!
In this article, we’ll use most all of the variables in
tree_frogs to predict
reflex, a measure of ear
function called the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), categorized into
bins. Ear function increases from factor levels “low”, to “mid”, to
data("tree_frogs") # subset the data <- tree_frogs %>% tree_frogs select(-c(clutch, latency))
Let’s plot the data to get a sense for how separable these groups are.
theme_set(theme_bw()) ggplot(tree_frogs) + aes(x = treatment, y = age, color = reflex) + geom_jitter() + labs(y = "Embryo Age (s)", x = "treatment", color = "Response")
It looks like the embryo age is pretty effective at picking out embryos with full VOR function, but the problem gets tougher for the less developed embryos! Let’s see how well the stacked ensemble can classify these tree frogs.
As in the numeric prediction setting, defining the candidate ensemble members is undoubtedly the longest part of the ensembling process with stacks. First, splitting up the training data, generating resamples, and setting some options that will be used by each model definition.
# some setup: resampling and a basic recipe set.seed(1) <- initial_split(tree_frogs) tree_frogs_split <- training(tree_frogs_split) tree_frogs_train <- testing(tree_frogs_split) tree_frogs_test <- rsample::vfold_cv(tree_frogs_train, v = 5) folds <- tree_frogs_rec recipe(reflex ~ ., data = tree_frogs_train) %>% step_dummy(all_nominal_predictors(), -reflex) %>% step_zv(all_predictors()) <- tree_frogs_wflow workflow() %>% add_recipe(tree_frogs_rec)
We also need to use the same control settings as in the numeric response setting:
We’ll define two different model definitions to try to predict
reflex—a random forest and a neural network.
Starting out with a random forest:
<- rand_forest_spec rand_forest( mtry = tune(), min_n = tune(), trees = 500 %>% ) set_mode("classification") %>% set_engine("ranger") <- rand_forest_wflow %>% tree_frogs_wflow add_model(rand_forest_spec) <- rand_forest_res tune_grid( object = rand_forest_wflow, resamples = folds, grid = 10, control = ctrl_grid )
Now, moving on to the neural network model definition:
<- nnet_spec mlp(hidden_units = tune(), penalty = tune(), epochs = tune()) %>% set_mode("classification") %>% set_engine("nnet") <- nnet_rec %>% tree_frogs_rec step_normalize(all_predictors()) <- nnet_wflow %>% tree_frogs_wflow add_model(nnet_spec) %>% update_recipe(nnet_rec) <- nnet_res tune_grid( object = nnet_wflow, resamples = folds, grid = 10, control = ctrl_grid )
With these model definitions fully specified, we’re ready to start putting together an ensemble!
Building the stacked ensemble, now, only takes a few lines:
<- tree_frogs_model_st # initialize the stack stacks() %>% # add candidate members add_candidates(rand_forest_res) %>% add_candidates(nnet_res) %>% # determine how to combine their predictions blend_predictions() %>% # fit the candidates with nonzero stacking coefficients fit_members() tree_frogs_model_st#> # A tibble: 10 × 4 #> member type weight class #> <chr> <chr> <dbl> <fct> #> 1 .pred_mid_rand_forest_res_1_01 rand_forest 18.6 low #> 2 .pred_mid_nnet_res_1_08 mlp 11.4 mid #> 3 .pred_mid_nnet_res_1_04 mlp 10.9 mid #> 4 .pred_full_nnet_res_1_04 mlp 10.8 full #> 5 .pred_full_nnet_res_1_07 mlp 7.77 full #> 6 .pred_mid_nnet_res_1_03 mlp 6.39 low #> 7 .pred_mid_rand_forest_res_1_08 rand_forest 6.11 mid #> 8 .pred_mid_nnet_res_1_01 mlp 4.21 low #> 9 .pred_mid_nnet_res_1_10 mlp 3.52 low #> 10 .pred_full_nnet_res_1_06 mlp 3.16 full
To make sure that we have the right trade-off between minimizing the
number of members and optimizing performance, we can use the
To show the relationship more directly:
autoplot(tree_frogs_model_st, type = "members")
If these results were not good enough,
blend_predictions() could be called again with different
penalty. As it is,
blend_predictions() picks the penalty parameter with the
numerically optimal results. To see the top results:
autoplot(tree_frogs_model_st, type = "weights")
There are multiple facets since the ensemble members can have different effects on different classes.
To identify which model configurations were assigned what stacking
coefficients, we can make use of the
collect_parameters(tree_frogs_model_st, "rand_forest_res") #> # A tibble: 60 × 6 #> member mtry min_n class terms coef #> <chr> <int> <int> <chr> <chr> <dbl> #> 1 rand_forest_res_1_01 1 26 low .pred_mid_rand_forest_res_1_01 18.6 #> 2 rand_forest_res_1_01 1 26 low .pred_full_rand_forest_res_1_01 0 #> 3 rand_forest_res_1_01 1 26 mid .pred_mid_rand_forest_res_1_01 0 #> 4 rand_forest_res_1_01 1 26 mid .pred_full_rand_forest_res_1_01 0 #> 5 rand_forest_res_1_01 1 26 full .pred_mid_rand_forest_res_1_01 0 #> 6 rand_forest_res_1_01 1 26 full .pred_full_rand_forest_res_1_01 0 #> 7 rand_forest_res_1_02 2 33 low .pred_mid_rand_forest_res_1_02 0 #> 8 rand_forest_res_1_02 2 33 low .pred_full_rand_forest_res_1_02 0 #> 9 rand_forest_res_1_02 2 33 mid .pred_mid_rand_forest_res_1_02 0 #> 10 rand_forest_res_1_02 2 33 mid .pred_full_rand_forest_res_1_02 0 #> # ℹ 50 more rows
This object is now ready to predict with new data!
<- tree_frogs_pred %>% tree_frogs_test bind_cols(predict(tree_frogs_model_st, ., type = "prob"))
Computing the ROC AUC for the model:
::roc_auc( yardstick tree_frogs_pred,truth = reflex, contains(".pred_") )
Looks like our predictions were pretty strong! How do the stacks
predictions perform, though, as compared to the members’ predictions? We
can use the
members argument to generate predictions from
each of the ensemble members.
<- tree_frogs_pred %>% tree_frogs_test select(reflex) %>% bind_cols( predict( tree_frogs_model_st, tree_frogs_test,type = "class", members = TRUE ) ) tree_frogs_pred#> # A tibble: 303 × 14 #> reflex .pred_class .pred_class_rand_forest_res_1_01 .pred_class_rand_forest…¹ #> <fct> <fct> <fct> <fct> #> 1 full full full full #> 2 mid mid low mid #> 3 mid mid mid mid #> 4 mid mid low low #> 5 full full full full #> 6 full full full full #> 7 full full full full #> 8 full full full full #> 9 full full full full #> 10 full full full full #> # ℹ 293 more rows #> # ℹ abbreviated name: ¹.pred_class_rand_forest_res_1_07 #> # ℹ 10 more variables: .pred_class_nnet_res_1_06 <fct>, #> # .pred_class_nnet_res_1_03 <fct>, .pred_class_nnet_res_1_10 <fct>, #> # .pred_class_nnet_res_1_01 <fct>, .pred_class_nnet_res_1_05 <fct>, #> # .pred_class_rand_forest_res_1_08 <fct>, .pred_class_nnet_res_1_08 <fct>, #> # .pred_class_nnet_res_1_07 <fct>, .pred_class_nnet_res_1_04 <fct>, … map( colnames(tree_frogs_pred), ~mean(tree_frogs_pred$reflex == pull(tree_frogs_pred, .x)) %>% ) set_names(colnames(tree_frogs_pred)) %>% as_tibble() %>% pivot_longer(c(everything(), -reflex)) #> # A tibble: 13 × 3 #> reflex name value #> <dbl> <chr> <dbl> #> 1 1 .pred_class 0.875 #> 2 1 .pred_class_rand_forest_res_1_01 0.851 #> 3 1 .pred_class_rand_forest_res_1_07 0.868 #> 4 1 .pred_class_nnet_res_1_06 0.848 #> 5 1 .pred_class_nnet_res_1_03 0.848 #> 6 1 .pred_class_nnet_res_1_10 0.845 #> 7 1 .pred_class_nnet_res_1_01 0.842 #> 8 1 .pred_class_nnet_res_1_05 0.789 #> 9 1 .pred_class_rand_forest_res_1_08 0.881 #> 10 1 .pred_class_nnet_res_1_08 0.795 #> 11 1 .pred_class_nnet_res_1_07 0.861 #> 12 1 .pred_class_nnet_res_1_04 0.851 #> 13 1 .pred_class_nnet_res_1_02 0.838
Voilà! You’ve now made use of the stacks package to predict tree frog embryo ear function using a stacked ensemble!