With ‘RLumModel’ ≥ 0.2.0 is it possible to simulate quartz luminescence behaviour of own parameters or parameter sets, which are not included in the package but also known in literature. Widely used OTOR (One-Trap-One-Recombination-center) models can be included, too. This vignette gives three comprehensive examples how to implement parameter sets and proves the results recalculating the original simulations.

‘RLumModel’ offers maximum flexibility and fast calculation of ordinary first-order differential equations (ODEs) describing luminescence behaviour, because of:

- flexible handling of different numbers of electron traps and hole
centres in generating the model equations. The user has not to care
about coding ODEs in
**R**. - Solving these equations is performed with C++ (Eddelbuettel 2013) and offers a fast calculation.

This chapter shows the handling of own parameter sets with ‘RLumModel’. For this purpose three model parameters known from literature were taken: Pagonis et al. (2009), Lawless, Chen, and Pagonis (2009) and Chen and Pagonis (2013).

Pagonis et al. (2009) presented
parameters for their luminescence modelling of radioluminescence. This
model was built for Al_{2}O_{3}, but the rate equations
are identical with describing electron movements in quartz. Below is a
step-by-step manual for involving these parameters in ‘RLumModel’ and
re-calculating the simulationa made by Pagonis et
al. (2009). Note that in the original publication Figure 3 and
Figure 6 are inconsistent with each other. For a doserate of 0.1 Gy/s an
initial RL intensity of ca. 1.5e14 is obtained (see Figure 6 in original
publication and simulations below).

First of all the model parameters had to be set. In ‘RLumModel’ this can be done via . The list has to contain the following items:

- N: Concentration of electron- and hole traps [cm
^{-3}] - E: Electron/Hole trap depth [eV]
- s: Frequency factor [s
^{-1}] - A: Conduction band to electron trap and valence band to hole trap
transition probability [s
^{-1}cm^{3}]. - B: Conduction band to hole centre transition probability
[s
^{-1}cm^{3}]. - Th: Photo-eviction constant or photoionisation cross section, respectively. If not set: by default 0.
- E_th: Thermal assistence energy [eV]. If not set: by default 0.
- k_B: Boltzman constant 8.617e-05 [eV/K]. If not set: by default 8.617e-05.
- W: activation energy 0.64 [eV] (for UV). If not set: by default 0.64.
- K: 2.8e7 (dimensionless constant). If not set: by default 2.8e7.
- model: “customized”
- R (optional): Ionisation rate (pair production rate) equivalent to 1
Gy/s [s
^{-1}cm^{-3}]

**Note**:

- Not every publication uses the same definition of parameter
`A`

and`B`

. - When no thermal quenching is expected, set
`K = 0`

. A numerical value of`W`

is necessary, if . - The parameter
`model = "customized"`

is necessary to not load a stored model within the RLumModel pacakge. - The luminescence center, which is responsible for the luminescence production (TL-, OSL-, RF-signal), has to be the last entry in the model parameters, see examples below.
- For further details of the parameter see Bailey (2001) and Wintle (1975).
- The first two entries in
`N`

,`A`

and`B`

belong to the electron traps and the last two entries to the hole centres. This order is necessary. - The first entry in
`N`

,`E`

,`s`

,`A`

,`B`

,`Th`

and`E_th`

belong to the first energy level (e.g. 110°C), the second, third, … entries to second, third, … energy levels. - The entries
`Th`

and`E_th`

are not necessary, because when they miss in the definition of the own parameters they will automatically be set to 0.

```
<- list(
own_parameters N = c(2e15, 2e15, 2.4e16, 1e17),
E = c(0, 0, 0, 0),
s = c(0, 0, 0, 0),
A = c(2e-8, 2e-9, 4e-9, 1e-8),
B = c(0, 0, 5e-11, 4e-8),
K = 0,
model = "customized",
R = 1.7e15)
```

It is important to notice, that in Pagonis et
al. (2009) `B`

is the valence band to hole centre
probability, but in Bailey (2001) this is
A_{j}. The default setting of RLumModel is the definition by
Bailey (2001) and so the values of
`B`

(in Pagonis et al. (2009))
are `A`

in the notation above.

As a next step it is possible to set own starting-parameters, also called state parameters. In the case of Pagonis et al. (2009) they submitted initial concentrations of electrons and holes. This can be done via:

`<- c(0, 0, 0, 9.4e15) own_state_parameters `

Here the first entry is the first electron trap, the second entry the
second electron trap, the third entry the hole center and the fourth
entry the luminescence center responsible for the RF signal. The vector
`own_state_parameters`

needs as much entries as energy levels
used in the model.

When all parameters are set, the simulation can be started. The main
function in RLumModel is `model_LuminescenceSignals()`

and
the usage with own parameter sets is described below. For a general
overview for creating a sequence, running RLumModel with stored models
etc. the user is referred to Friedrich, Kreutzer,
and Schmidt (2016) and to the vignette RLumModel -
Getting started with RLumModel.

For simulating the results of Pagonis et al. (2009) the follwing sequence is needed.

`<- list(RF = c(20, 0.1, 0.1)) sequence `

This sequence describes a radiofluorescence simulation at 20 °C with a dose of 0.1 Gy and a dose rate of 0.1 Gy/s, so the stimulation time is 1s.

The parameters `own_parameters`

and
`own_state_parameters`

in
`model_LuminescenceSignals()`

are prepared for using own
created parameter sets. Parameter `model = "customized"`

is
necessary to not load stored parameters.

```
<- model_LuminescenceSignals(
RF_Pagonis2009 model = "customized",
sequence = sequence,
own_parameters = own_parameters,
own_state_parameters = own_state_parameters,
verbose = FALSE)
```

As in the original publication, initially the RF signal increases and is followed by an approximately linear region until the stimulation ends. Figure 5 in Pagonis et al. (2009) shows the concentration of the luminescence center m1 for the stimulation time of 1s. With RLumModel this can be plotted very fast with the following command (for a detailed description see vignette RLumModel - Getting started with RLumModel

```
<- Luminescence::get_RLum(
concentration_m1
RF_Pagonis2009,recordType = c("conc. level 4"))
::plot_RLum(
Luminescence
concentration_m1, ylim = c(9.2e15, 9.6e15))
```

Reproducing Figure 3 and Figure 6 in Pagonis et al. (2009) a loop over different dose rates is necessary. The following code lines are able to run the model for five different dose rates from 0.1 to 0.5 Gy/s and plot all contained RF curves and the initial RF signal. For a more detailed descripton of the loop and the single commands therein the user is referred to Friedrich, Kreutzer, and Schmidt (2016) and the vignette RLumModel - Getting started with RLumModel.

```
<- seq(from = 0.1, to = 0.5, by = 0.1)
dose.rate
<- lapply(dose.rate, function(x) {
model.output
<- list(RF = c(20, x, x))
sequence
<- model_LuminescenceSignals(
RF_data model = "customized",
sequence = sequence,
own_parameters = own_parameters,
own_state_parameters = own_state_parameters,
verbose = FALSE,
plot = FALSE
)
## "RF$" for exact matching RF and not (RF)
return(get_RLum(RF_data, recordType = "RF$", drop = FALSE))
})
<- merge_RLum(model.output)
model.output.merged
plot_RLum(
object = model.output.merged,
xlab = "Stimulation time [s]",
ylab = "RF signal [a.u.]",
legend.text = paste(dose.rate, "Gy/s"),
legend.pos = "outside",
combine = TRUE)
```

The following code calcultes the initial RF signal for the five different dose rates.

```
<- seq(from = 0.1, to = 0.5, by = 0.1)
dose.rate
<- vapply(X = dose.rate, FUN = function(x) {
model.output
<- list(RF = c(20, x, x))
sequence
<- model_LuminescenceSignals(
temp model = "customized",
sequence = sequence,
own_parameters = own_parameters,
own_state_parameters = own_state_parameters,
verbose = FALSE,
plot = FALSE
)
## "RF$" for exact matching RF and not (RF)
<- get_RLum(temp, recordType = "RF$")
RF_curve
return(max(get_RLum(RF_curve)[2,2]))
FUN.VALUE = 1) },
```

The results show that ‘RLumModel’ is able to simulate the same results as published in Pagonis et al. (2009) with only little effort. All these examples can be modified to own needs, e.g. own sequences or own parameters.

Lawless, Chen, and Pagonis (2009) investigateted the sublinear dose dependence of TL and OSL. They published a set of model parameters to simulate the behaviour of the quartz luminescence system during different dose rates. In contrast to the example above, this simulation has no state parameters and so they were not definded.

All used parameters are defined in the named list
`own_parameters`

. `K=0`

was chosen, because no
thermal quenching was simulated. Note: In the “Bailey 2001” notation
`B`

has the same meaning as `Am`

in Lawless, Chen, and Pagonis (2009) (for details
see example in chapter 2.1.1).

```
<- list(
own_parameters N = c(1e14, 1e15),
E = c(0, 0),
s = c(0, 0),
A = c(1e-13, 1e-14),
B = c(0, 1e-7),
K = 0,
model = "customized",
R = 1e8)
<- list(RF = c(20, 100, 1))
sequence
<- model_LuminescenceSignals(
RF_Lawless_2009 model = "customized",
sequence = sequence,
own_parameters = own_parameters,
verbose = FALSE,
plot = FALSE)
<- Luminescence::get_RLum(
concentration_n
RF_Lawless_2009, recordType = c("conc. level 1"))
```

This code leads to the following results and shows the same as plotted in Lawless, Chen, and Pagonis (2009), Fig. 2 (plot commands not shown here). More details to the equations mentioned in the legend are available in the original publication.

Chen and Pagonis (2013) published a numerical model to investigate the quasi-equilibrium assumptions in TL. For the description of the system a OTOR model was used.

This model is the first in this vignette which did not start its
simulation at 20 °C. For this cases,
`model_LuminescenceSignals()`

offers a parameter called
`own_start_temperature`

. This parameter offers maximal
flexibility for the user to set the initial temperature of the
simulation. The parameter takes effect when
`model = "customized"`

is used, see example below.

```
<- list(
own_parameters N = c(1e9, 0),
E = c(0.4, 0),
s = c(1e11, 0),
A = c(1e-9,0),
B = c(0, 1e-10),
K = 0,
model = "customized")
<- c(1e8, 1e8)
own_state_parameters
<- -220
own_start_temperature
<- list(TL = c(-220, 130, 1)) sequence
```

Here the parameter `own_start_temperature`

from the
function `model_LuminescenceSignals()`

is used to set the
beginning of the measurement to -220°C. It is important, that
‘RLumModel’ always uses temperatures in °C.

```
<- model_LuminescenceSignals(
TL_Chen2013 model = "customized",
sequence = sequence,
own_parameters = own_parameters,
own_state_parameters = own_state_parameters,
own_start_temperature = own_start_temperature,
verbose = FALSE)
```

With this result it is possible to plot the concentration of every single energy level, leading to the following plot (see also Fig. 6 in Chen and Pagonis (2013))

This vignette showed the potential of the R package ‘RLumModel’ to
use own parameter sets simulating quartz luminescence behaviour. Quartz
as well as Al_{2}O_{3} luminescence phenomena can be
numerically described and graphically plotted.

Bailey, R M. 2001. “Towards a General Kinetic Model for Optically
and Thermally Stimulated Luminescence of Quartz.” *Radiation
Measurements* 33: 17–45.

Chen, R, and V Pagonis. 2013. “On the
quasi-equilibrium assumptions in the theory of thermoluminescence
(TL).” *Journal of Luminescence* 143: 734–40.

Eddelbuettel, Dirk. 2013. *Seamless R and C++
integration with Rcpp*. Springer.

Friedrich, Johannes, Sebastian Kreutzer, and Christoph Schmidt. 2016.
“Solving ordinary differential equations to
understand luminescence: ’RLumModel’, an advanced research tool for
simulating luminescence in quartz using R .”
*Quaternary Geochronology* 35: 88–100.

Lawless, J L, R Chen, and V Pagonis. 2009. “Sublinear Dose
Dependence of Thermoluminescence and Optically Stimulated Luminescence
Prior to the Approach to Saturation Level.” *Radiation
Measurements* 44 (5): 606–10.

Pagonis, V, J L Lawless, R Chen, and C Andersen. 2009.
“Radioluminescence in Al\({_2}\)O\({_3}\):C – Analytical and Numerical
Simulation Results.” *Journal of Physics D: Applied
Physics* 42 (17): 175107.

Wintle, AG. 1975. “Thermal Quenching of
Thermoluminescence in Quartz.” *Geophysical Journal
International* 41 (1): 107–13.